278 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION him. " Since it is English that an English gentleman will have constant use of, that is the language he should chiefly cultivate, and wherein most care should be taken to polish and perfect his style. . . I am not here speaking against Greek and Latin; I think they ought to be studied, and the Latin at least understood well by every gentleman. But whatever foreign languages a young man meddles with (and the more he knows the better), that which he should critically study, and labour to get a facility, clearness, and elegancy to express himself in, should be his own ; and to this purpose he should daily be exercised in it."* Even more important for subsequent educational developments is his argument for the inclusion of a handicraft among the subjects of a gentleman's study. " The busy inclination of children being always to be directed to something that may be useful to them, the advantages proposed from what they are set about may be considered of two kinds : (i) Where the skill itself that is got by exercise is worth the having. This skill not only in languages and learned sciences, but in painting, turning, gardening, tem- pering, and working in iron, and all other useful arts, is worth the having, (2) Where the exercise itself, without any considera- tion, is necessary or useful for health." f That is not the whole case for manual training, but it is an important part of it; and it had its influence with later educators. To complete the account of Locke's educational doctrines, it is necessary to turn now to the essay, Of the Conduct of the Understanding. The essential idea of the essay may be given in a sentence : " We are born with faculties and powers capable of almost anything, such at least as would carry us farther than can easily be imagined ; but it is only the exercise of those powers which gives us ability and skill in anything. ... As it is in the body, so it is in the mind: practice makes it what it is." J The point of view in the essay, it will be noted, is completely different from that of the Thoughts. The education contem- plated in the latter is quite specific—it is a preparation for a particular kind of life ; that contemplated in the former is quite general—it is the preparation of the intellect for any kind of life. Or putting the contrast rather differently: the Thoughts states the aim of education in objective terms, as consisting in the acquisition of certain forms of knowledge and skill; the essay, * § 189. f § 303. J § 4.